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Translating a 50 mg/kg LD50 to an understandable situation in humans, if a group of 150-pound humans ingested about one-half teaspoon of such a chemical, approximately 50% would be expected to die. Cancers are usually named for the specific cell type or organ of origination. For example, squamous cell carcinoma of the lung is a cancer that arose from a squamous cell in the lung. A hepatocellular carcinoma is a cancer arising from a liver cell .
The primary function of the respiratory system is to deliver oxygen to the bloodstream and remove carbon dioxide from the blood. Thus, damage to the respiratory tissues interferes with blood/gas exchange that may cause serious malfunction of all tissues of the body, especially the brain and heart.
Some exert their toxicity quickly while others act over a long period to time . Examples of respiratory toxins are asbestos, formaldehyde, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and silica. Toxins can damage cells of the central nervous system or the peripheral nervous system . The standard toxicology test for corrosivity uses white rabbits with the material applied to the shaved skin. Experience has shown that results obtained with white rabbits are highly predictive of potential skin effects in humans.
They can act directly on cells of the embryo causing cell death or cell damage that leads to abnormal organ development. A chemical might also induce a mutation in a parent’s germ cell that is transmitted to the fertilized ovum. Examples of reproductive toxins are lead and 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane . Reproductive toxicity can involve toxicant damage to either the male or female reproductive system.
- If no hazards are found, the manufacturer, importer, or employer is not required to take further action pertaining to the evaluated chemical.
- If a mixture has not been tested as a whole keto boost for health hazards, the mixture shall be assumed to present the same hazards as components which comprise 1.0 percent (1%) or more of the mixture.
- CAS numbers are assigned by the Chemical Abstract Service of the American Chemical Society.
- Written procedures generally describe the process followed; they do not have to address, individually, each chemical evaluated.
- Even if no hazards are found, however, documentation of the steps taken to evaluate the chemical may be useful for future reference.
- In this case, the mixture shall be assumed to present a carcinogenic hazard if it contains a carcinogenic component which comprises 0.1 percent (0.1%) or more of the mixture.
Corrosion determined using other species and procedures must also be considered in the decision as to classification as a corrosive. While these criteria are based on laboratory animals that are quite different than humans, the relative response between animals and humans is generally comparable on a per body weight basis. Thus, expressing the effect in terms of kilogram of body weight provides a satisfactory basis for determining potential human effects based on animal research results.
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Respiratory toxicity can occur in the upper respiratory system or in the lower respiratory system . The primary types of respiratory toxicity are pulmonary irritation, asthma/bronchitis, reactive airway disease, emphysema, allergic alveolitis, fibrotic lung disease, pneumoconiosis, and lung cancer.
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Those substances that can cause birth defects are referred to as teratogens. The HCS definition for agents which damage the lung is “chemicals which irritate or damage pulmonary tissue. ” These are commonly known as respiratory toxins.